"extreme male brain theory" (EMB theory) (Baron-Cohen et al., 2005, 2011; Auyeung et

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This notion of hyperreactivity at the core on the Intense World Theory recalls Dabrowski's "over-excitability" (1964) later returned to by Ackerman (Ackerman and Moyle, 2009) for its relevance in identifying HIP Apoptozole site trans-Piceatannol site children. In reality Dabrowski noted a powerful propensity in these subjects to entertain an intense rapport with title= AJPH.2015.302719 the world and to title= s40037-015-0222-8 manifest over-excitability in response to environmental stimulations, which is in line together with the conclusions of Gere. Ultimately, we can mention the neurodevelopmental hypothesis set out by Mrazik and Dombrowski (2010), for whom HIP originates from an atypical cerebra."extreme male brain theory" (EMB theory) (Baron-Cohen et al., 2005, 2011; Auyeung et al., 2013). Testosterone modifies neuronal connectivity, acting directlyon DNA. It increases the formation of dendritic spines through a approach mediated by BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor). Androgen receptors are present in the start off of your third trimester of pregnancy and their expression is quite higher, specially in the temporal lobe (Baron-Cohen et al., 2005) which we know to become implicated in language and social stimulus processing, and which presents functional abnormalities in ASD subjects (Saitovitch et al., 2012; Alaerts et al., 2014). Moreover, an endocrinology study (Palomba et al., 2012) showed that the probability of giving birth to a youngster building ASD is higher in girls presenting hyperandrogenism with polycystic ovary syndrome. The improved development of dendritic spines is coherent with other research on cyto-architecture and neuronal connectivity in ASD. A specific quantity of research demonstrated that atypical neuronal connectivity in ASD is characterized by underconnectivity in long-range circuits (the longitudinal fasciculi in certain) and by over-connectivity in local microcircuits, acquiring new functional properties but affecting complex details integration (Just et al., 2007; Casanova and Trippe, 2009; Schipul et al., 2011; Maximo et al., 2014). A very recentFrontiers in Psychology | www.frontiersin.orgOctober 2016 | Volume 7 | ArticleBoschi et al.Overlaps among Autism and "Giftedness"study (Tang et al., 2014), in a post-mortem analysis of ASD subjects' brains, highlighted enhanced dendritic spine density combined with reduced spine pruning in layer V pyramidal neurons inside the Broadmann Location 21 (temporal cortex), a area involved in social processing. These results are congruent with these of Markram and Markram (2010) who, on the basis of their previous study, proposed a new neurobiological model of autism ("The Intense World Theory"). From an animal model of autism generated by intra-peritoneal injection of valproic acid (VPA) in pregnant rats, the authors observed neuronal over-connectivity in microcircuits in diverse regions of your neocortex (in unique the prefrontal and title= s12887-015-0481-x somatosensory cortex) and in the amygdala, among the offspring exposed to VPA. This over-connectivity is combined with hyper-reactivity and hyper-plasticity of those circuits, in turn sustained by glutamatergic technique alterations due to over-expression from the NMDA receptor subunits NR2A and NRB2, implicated in memory and understanding. According to the authors, these characteristics have consequences within the cognitive and behavioral places and clarify in particular the hyper-attention to detail, withdrawal into a secure environment characterized by the immutability resulting from adverse sensorial stimuli, emotional hypersensitivity and anxiety. This notion of hyperreactivity at the core of your Intense Planet Theory recalls Dabrowski's "over-excitability" (1964) later returned to by Ackerman (Ackerman and Moyle, 2009) for its relevance in identifying HIP young children.

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