(BDI; Beck et al. 1961) Manic symptoms have been assessed together with the YMRS

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Also, duration of illness and number of prior depressive and (hypo)manic episodes have been recorded as demographics. Controls were administered the MINI, the BDI, as well as the Short Symptom Inventory (BSI; Franke 2000).Theory of mind tasksVisual cognitive ToM was assessed together with the Mental State Attribution Task (MSAT) developed by Br e (2003). This task consists of six ToM cartoon stories, each comprising 4 image cards. For every R epigenetic therapyWriters DNA methylation Histone methylation Histone acetylation DNA methyltransferases single story, the 4 cards have been placed face down in front with the participants in random order. The participants were then requested to turn them over and organize the cards into a logical sequence. The time taken for sequencing was noted. If the cards were sequenced incorrectly, the experimenter placed them within the suitable order. Subsequent, the participants had been asked questions about the mental states in the characters in the cartoon. To answer the questions properly, the participants had to understand characters' first-order, secondorder, or third-order correct or false beliefs, reciprocity, deception and cheating intentions. Two questions have been "reality" queries that did not need inferences about mental states but rather merely the detection of details from the story that had been visually comprehendible. Two of the image stories at the same time as the process of rating were adapted from Langdon et al. (1997). The correct sequencing in the first and final cards title= j.adolescence.2013.10.012 was offered two points, even though title= 2152-7806.162550 the right sequencing with the second and third card was awarded one point. Every properly answered question was awarded a single point. A total score comprising theHaag et al. Int J Bipolar Disord (2016) 4:Page four ofsequencing-accuracy score along with the correctly answered concerns was computed (using a maximum of 59 points). Two practice samples depicting "reality" (i.e., non-ToM) stories taken from Langdon et al. title= rsta.2014.0282 (1997) have been administered just before the primary task. The variables of interest were the total score and the total time taken for the sequencing from the six cartoons (measured in seconds). Visual affective ToM was measured together with the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET; German version by B te (2005)). The RMET consists of a series of 36 sheets having a pair of eyes printed in the middle of each sheet. Every pair of eyes is presented with four words that describe emotions or affectively valenced states of mind (e.g., "anxious" or "confused"). From an answer sheet, the participants had been instructed to choose the word that finest described what the particular person within the picture was feeling, considering or trying to express. No time restrictions were imposed, but participants had been informed that they had been being timed. A maximum of 36 points might be achieved. The variables of interest were the total score as well as the time taken to finish the process measured in minutes.Neuropsychological measuresAll tests and interviews had been carried out by trained postgraduate psychology or health-related students.Statistical analysesThe neuropsychological assessment comprised 17 tests measuring selected facets of focus, memory, executive functions, and general cognitive ability.(BDI; Beck et al. 1961) Manic symptoms have been assessed with the YMRS and the Altman Self-Rating Mania Scale (ASRM; Altman et al.

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